The Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics (IJAB) is published biannually by Office of the Vice-chancellor of Research Affairs of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. IJAB publishes original scientific research, not published before or under consideration elsewhere, in the broad areas of Animal Biosystematics and Biodiversity which relates to the southern Palearctic region, including Iran. Publications will be in one of these three formats: full papers, short communications and reviews. Book reviews, scientific announcements and news relating to topics of the Journal will also be published. The main topics of interest are: theoretical, comparative, methodological and applied research relating to the following areas: • Taxonomy • Morphology • Development • Population • Zoogeography • Ecology • Behavior • Biochemical and Molecular Population Genetics • Cytogenetics • Palaeo-neonthology • Phylogeny • Systems analysis and Modeling The Journal is devoted to the understanding of animal diversity and its sustainable use, and addresses an international audience. For more details, please visit the web site: http://jm.um.ac.ir/index.php/biosys Guide for Authors The Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics (IJAB) will publish papers in the areas described in its aims and scopes containing the results of original work and review articles within the general field described by its title. Contributions should have different results and not be numbered serially. Types of paper Research Articles: reporting original and previously unpublished work. Short Communications: These are concise, but complete descriptions of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short communications should not exceed 2400 words (six printed pages), excluding references and legends. Submissions should include a short abstract not exceeding 10% of the length of the communication and which summarizes briefly the main findings of the work to be reported. The bulk of the text should be in a continuous form that does not require numbered sections such as Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussion. However, a Cover page, Abstract and a list of Keywords are required at the beginning of the communication and Acknowledgements and References at the end. These components are to be prepared in the same format as used for full-length research papers. Occasionally authors may use sub-titles of their own choice to highlight sections of the text. The overall number of tables and figures should be limited to a maximum of three (i.e. two figures and one table). Review Articles: Critical evaluation of existing data, defined topics or emerging fields of investigation, critical issues of public concern, sometimes including the historical development of topics. Those wishing to prepare a review should first consult the Editors or Associate Editors concerning acceptability of topic and length. Think Notes: Short, one page notes describing new developments, new ideas, comments on a controversial subject, or comments on recent conferences will also be considered for publication. Letter to the Editor: A written discussion of papers published in the journal. Letters are accepted on the basis of new insights on the particular topic, relevance to the published paper and timeliness. Contact details for submission Authors may send queries concerning the submission process, manuscript status, or journal procedures to the Editorial in Chief: darvish@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir Submission declaration Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder. Contributors Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure. Copyright No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored or distributed by any means without permission in writing from Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, acting for the copyright holder. © 2009 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press ISSN: 1735-434X Language and language services Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/authors_journals_ resources_ full~db=all#Resources Submission Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail. Use of wordprocessing software It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly in the electronic text and on the manuscript. To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your wordprocessor. Article structure Introduction State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. Material and methods Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described. Appendices If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Essential title page information • Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. • Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author. • Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. • Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes. Abstract A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the