The Female Reproductive Cycle of the Spotted Toad-headed Agama, Phrynocephalus maculatus (Sauria: Agamidae) in Iran

Document Type : Research articles


Department of Biology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran


The Spotted Toad-headed Agama, Phrynocephalus maculatus, is a member of the Agamidae family distributed in the central and south-eastern deserts of Iran. Iranian specimens are rare in collections. In this research, the female reproductive cycle of this species was studied from April 5 to August 5, 2013. Totally, 15 adult females were collected by hand at midday from southern parts of Damghan County, located in Semnan Province of Iran. Ovaries were removed and processed for histological and morphometric studies. The oogenic cycle begins from early April, mating occurs at the beginning of May, with oviposition occurring from late May to mid July. Females lay 2-3 eggs per clutch with the possibility of producing a secondary clutch later in the season. Maximum reproductive activity occurs in May and early June and reduces from early July and ends in August. There was no significant difference between the right and left side of the reproductive system. Hence, oogenesis occurs from April through July, P. maculatus follows an associated reproductive cycle typical for temperate species.