A New Cytotype of the Iranian House Mouse, Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Muridae), in Birjand Region, Eastern Iran: Implications for the Evolution of Sex-Autosome Translocations

Document Type : Research articles


1 ferdowsi university

2 Ferdowsi University


The highly conserved morphology and chromosomal structures of house mouse, Mus musculus, provides a good model for chromosomal studies. Sex-autosome translocations is one of the rarest chromosomal rearrangements among mammals and therefore sex-autosome translocations has been offered as accurate taxonomic markers to identify species with similar morphological traits. In this study, we described the outcome of a comprehensive cytogenetic survey of the house mouse, Mus musculus, in the eastern Iran using G banding method. Interestingly, results showed the presence of a new cytotype of X-autosome translocation of house mouse which was found in 18 specimens of Birjand region in the eastern Iran. Larger size of choromosomal translocation was observed in Chromosome X. We used karyotype asymmetry method as a powerful statistical parameter to extract coefficient of variation of chromosome length. Based on the data of this study, the results, Birjand population did not show asymmetry in all Asymmetry indexes (AI, DI, As%, A, A2, A1 and Syi%), and this result confirmed translocations in Birjands' chromosomes as well.


Adolph, S, Klein, J.,1981. Robertsonian variation in Mus musculus from Central Europe Spain and Scotland. Journal of Heredity 72(3), 219-21.
Baydemir, N. A., and Karoz, A. M., 2014. Banded Karyotype of Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) from Central Black Sea Region in Turkey Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 8 (3), 28-31
Benoîte, C. J., Claude, C. J., Britton-Davidian, J., 2014. Non-Random Occurrence of Robertsonian Translocations in the House Mouse (Mus musculus domesticus): Is It Related to Quantitative Variation in the Minor Satellite? Cytogenet Genome Reserch 43, 275-295.
Bonhomme, F., Rivals, E., Orth, A., Grant, G.R., Jeffreys, A.J., Bois, P.R., 2007. Species-wide distribution of highly polymorphic minisatellite markers suggests past and present genetic exchanges among House Mouse subspecies. Genome Biology, 8: R80.
Britton-Davidian, J., Catalan J., Ramalhinho, M., Ganem, G., Auffray, J.C., Capela, R., Biscoito M. ,Searle, J., Mathias, M. L., 2000. Rapid chromosomal evolution in island mice. Nature 403, 158-163.
Capanna, E. and Castiglia, R., 2004. Chromosomes and speciation in Mus musculus domesticus. Cytogenet. Genome Reserch 105, 375–384.
Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, 1972. Standard karyotype of the mouse, Mus musculus. J. Heredity 63,69–72.
Cowell, J.K., 1984. Aphotographic representation of the variability in the G-banded structure of the chromosomes in the mouse karyotype. Chromosoma 89, 294-320.
Craig, J.M., Bickmore, W.A., 1993. Chromosome bands – flavors to savor. Bioassays 15, 349-354.
Darvish J., 2008. Biosystematic approach to geographic variations of house mouse group, Mus musculus L.1766 Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics (IJAB) 4(1), 31-54.
Darvish, J. ORTH, A. BONHOMME, F., 2006. Genetic transition in the house mouse, Mus musculus of Eastern Iranian Plateau. Folia Zoology 55(4), 349-357.
Darvish, J., 2004. Analysis of morphological variation of molars teeth of house mouse Mus musculus 1766 of Eastern Iranian and their relative oldness in comparison with Mediterranean basin house mouse. Iranian Journal of Biology 16(4), 13-19 (in Persian).
Din, W., Anand, R., Boursot, P., Darviche, D., Dod, B., Jouvin-Marche, E., Orth, A., Talwar, G., Cazenave, P.A., Bonhomme, F., 1996. Origin and radiation of the house mouse : clues from nuclear genes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 9, 519–539.
Dobigny G., Britton-Davidian J., 2004. Autosome and sex chromosome diversity among the African pygmy mice, subgenus Nannomys (Muridae;Mus). Chromosome Reserch. 12, 369–382.
Frederic V., Dobigny, G., Yang, F., Patricia, C., O’Brien, M., Catala, J., Robinson T.J., Britton-Davidian, J., 2006. Phylogenomics of the genus Mus (Rodentia; Muridae): extensive genome repatterning is not restricted to the house mouse. Proceeding of the Royal Society B . 273, 2925–2934.
Fredga K., Gropp A., Winking H., Frank F.,1976. Fertile XX- and XY-type females in the wood lemming Myopus schisticolor. Nature 261, 225–227.
Greilhuber, J., Speta, F., 1976. C-banded karyotypes in the Scilla hohenackeriGroup, S. persica and Puschkinia(Liliaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 126, 149–188
Guerra, M.D.S., 1986. Reviewing the chromosome nomenclature of Levan. Brazilian Journal of Genetics IX 4, 741-743.
Guillermoseijo, J., Fernandez, A., 2003. Karyotype analysis and chromosome evolution in south American species of Lathyrus (Leguminosae).American Journal of Botany 90(7), 980–987.
Gündüz i. , C. Tez, V. Malikov, A. Vaziri, A. V Polyakov and J. B Searle, (2000). Mitochondrial DNA and chromosomal studies of wild mice (Mus) from Turkey and Iran. Heredity, 84, 458–467.
Iaea A., 2001. Technical Reports Series no. 405. Cytogenetic analysis for radiation dose assessment:a manual. International Atomic Energy Agency,Vienna. Printed by IAEA in Austina.
Kazumi, M., Nishida-Umehara, C., Kuroiwa, A., Tsuchiya, K., Matsuda, Y., 2003. Identification of chromosome rearrangements between the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) and the Indian spiny mouse (Mus platythrix) by comparative FISH analysis. ion Chromosome Research, 11(1), 57-64
Lavania, UC., Srivastava, S., 1992. A simple parameter of dispersion index that serves as a adjunct to karyotype asymmetry. Journal of Biosciences 17, 179–182.
Lee, M., Elder, B., 1980. Yeast stimulation of bone marrow mitosis for cytogenetic investigations. Cytogenetic Cell Genetics 26, 36–40.
Levan, A., Fredga, K. and A.A. Sandberg, (1964). Nomenclature for centromeric position on chromosomes. Hereditas 52, 201-220.
Levan, A., Hsu, T.C., Stich, H.F., 1962. The ideogram of themouse. Hereditas 48, 677-87.
Levitsky, GA., 1931. The karyotype in systematics. Bulletin of Applied Botany, Genetics and Plant Breeding 27, 220–240
Li, T., M.O’Brien, P.C., Btueva, L., Fu, B., Wang, J., Nie , W., Ferguson-Smith, M.A., Graphodatsky, A.S., Yang, F., 2004. Evolution of genome organizations of squirrels (Sciuridae) revealed by cross-species chromosome painting.Chromosome Reserch 12,317–335.
Lorenzo P., Halil E. E., 2013. Karyotype asymmetry: again, how to measure and what to measure?.Comparative cytogenetic 7(1), 1–9.
Mirabzadeh-Ardakani, E., 2001. The rapid method of preparing mouse karyotype and chromosomes identified by Gimsa staining and trypsin–Gimsa banding. J. Qazvin Univ. of Med. Sc. 16,Winter, 14-19.
Murphy, W.J., Pevzner, P. A., O’Brien, S.J., 2004. Mammalian phylogenomics comes of age. Trends Genetic 20, 639-631.
Nesbitt, M.N., Francke, U., 1973. A system of nomenclature for band patterns of mouse chromosomes. Chromosoma (Berl.) 41, 145-158.
Orth, A., Lyapunova, E., Kandaurov, A., Boissinot, S., Boursot, P., Vorontsov, N., Bonhomme, F. 1996. L’espece polytypique Mus musculus en Trancaucasie C.R.Acad.Sci. Paris, Science d la vie life Science, 319.
Paszko A., 2006. A critical review and a new proposal of karyotype asymmetry indices. Plant Systematics and Evolution 258, 39–48.
Pialek, J., Hauffe, H.C., Searle, J.B., 2005. Chromosomal variation in the house mouse. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 84, 535-563.
Prager, E.M., Tichy, H., Sage, R.D., 1996. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the eastern house mouse, Mus musculus: comparison with other house mice and report of a75-bp tandem repeat. Genetics 143, 427–446.
Rajabi-Maham, H., 2007. Phylogeographie des souris du complex Mus musculus en Iran: Coalescence mitochondriale et diversite du chromosome Y. These, Universite Montpellier II. France. 48.
Rajabi-Maham, H., Orth, A., Siahsarvie, R., Boursot, P., Darvish, J., Bonhomme, F., 2012. The southeastern house mouse Mus musculus castaneus (Rodentia: Muridae) is a polytypic subspecies. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107(2), 295-306.
Rokas, A., Holland, P.W., 2000. Rare genomic changes as a tool for phylogenetics. Trends Ecologyical Evolution 15, 454–45.
Romerozarco, C., 1986. A new method for estimating karyotype asymmetry. Taxon 35, 526–530.
Sawyer, J.R., Moore, M.M., Hozier, J.C., 1987. High resolution G-banded chromosomes of the mouse. Chromosoma (Berl) 95, 350-358.
Seabright, M., 1971. A rapid banding technique for human chromosomes. Lancet 2, 971–972.
Shabani, M., Darvish, J., Mashkour, M., Ghasemzadeh, F., Mirshamsi, O., 2010. Contemporary and sub-fossil house mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758) (Rodentia : Muridae) from Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 6, 45–54.
Siahsarvie, R., Auffray, J.C., Darvish, J., Rajabi-Maham, H., Yu, H.T., Agret, S., Bonhomme, F., Claude, J., 2012. Patterns of morphological evolution in the mandible of the house mouse Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105, 635–647.
Siljak-Yakovlev S., 1996. La dysploïdie et l’evolution du caryotype. Bocconea 5, 211–220.
Silver, L.M., 2001. Chromosomes: Mouse Genetics, Concepts and Applications. chap.5, Revised August 2004 &January 2008. Oxford University Press.
Stebbins, G.L., 1971. Chromosomal evolution in higher plants. London, UK: Edward Arnold ) Publishers) Ltd.
Vanlerberghe, F., Dod, B., Boursot, P., Bellis, M., Bonhomme, F., 1986. Absence of Ychromosome introgression across the hybrid zone between Mus musculus domesticus ans Mus musculus musculus. Genetic Reserch, 48:91-197.
Venora, G., Blangiforti, S., Ruffini, M., Castiglione, D., Pignone, F., Losavio, R., Cremonini, R., 2002. Chromatin organisation and computer aided karyotyping of Triticum durumDesf. cv Timilia. Caryologia 55, 91–98.
Veyrunes, F., Marshall Graves, J.A., 2006. Relationships between vertebrate ZW and XY sex chromosome systems. Current Biology 16, 736–743.
Wallace, M.E., 1981. Wild mice heterozygous for a single robertsonian translocation. Mouse News Lett 64, 49-55.
Watanabe, K., Yahara, T., Denda, T., Kosuge, K., 1999. Chromosomal evolution in the genus Brachyscome(Asteraceae, Astereae): Statistical tests regarding correlation between changes in karyotype and habit using phylogenetic information. Journal of Plant Research 112,145-161.
Wienberg, J., 2004. The evolution of eutherian chromosomes. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 14, 657–666.