Phylogeny of Iranian species of the genus Daphnia O. F. Müller, 1785 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anomopoda) based on morphological characters

Document Type : Research articles


1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Urmia University


Daphnia is a wide spread member of Cladocera living in different aquatic environments ranging from hypersaline swamps to freshwater lakes, lagoons, streams and rivers. To improve our knowledge on the diversity of the genus Daphnia and promote its biogeographical information in Iran, an investigation on the morphology and
identification of the Iranian species of the genus was carried out during the spring of 2013 and 2014. The Southern Caspian Sea Basin (SCSB) and Urmia Lake Basin (ULB) Daphnia fauna has been studied based on historical literature records and new collections. Zooplanktons were sampled from 29 randomly chosen localities across ca. 2500 km in
the SCSB and ULB basins including both permanent habitats (lakes and reservoirs), and small temporary water bodies (ponds and lagoons), both freshwater and saline. Cladistic analysis of Iranian species of genus Daphnia, based on 64 morphological characters obtained from the literature, confirmed the traditionally basic division of the genus into
two subgenera, Daphnia and Ctenodaphnia. This split was supported by enough number of synapomorphies. The relationships between all species within both subgenera were determined clearly. A regional identification key to ten Iranian species of the genus Daphnia was provided.


Main Subjects

Adamowicz, S.J., Petrusek A. & Colbourne, J., (2009) The scale of divergence: a phylogenetic appraisal of intercontinental allopatric speciation in a passively dispersed freshwater zooplankton genus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 50, 423–436.
Aghaei moghadam, A. A. & H. Aslan Parviz, (2003) The study on the nutrition of the juvenile sturgeon (Acipenser Persicus) in fish ponds of Shahid Rajaie’s centre (1999). Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 60, 77-83.
Alonso, M. (1985) Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) mediterranea: A new species of hypersaline waters, long confused with D. (C.) dolichocephala Sars, 1895. Hydrobiologia, 128, 217-228.
Baird, W., (1859) Description of several species of Entomostracous Crustacea from Jerusalem. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 3(4), 280-283.
Benzie, J. A. H. (2005) Cladocera: the genus Daphnia (including Daphniopsis). In H. J. F. Dumont (Ed.) Guides to the Identification of the Microinvertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World (pp. 376). Ghent: Kenobi Productions & Leiden: Backhuys. Billiones, R., Brehm, M., Klee, J. & Schwenk, K. (2004) Genetic identification of Hyalodaphnia species and interspecific hybrids. Hydrobiologia, 526, 43-53.
Benzie, J. A. H., (1986) Phenetic and cladistic analyses of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Daphnia worldwide. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht - Printed in the Netherlands. Hydrobiologia 140: 105 – 124.
Bronstein, Z. S., (1925) Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Ostracoden fauna der UdSSR und Persiens. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 9, 1-30.
Brooks, J. L., (1957) The systematics of North American Daphnia. Mem. Conn. Acad. Arts Sci. 13: l-180.
Claus, C, (1876) Zur Kenntniss der Organisation und des feiner Baues der Daphniiden und verwandten Cladoceren. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 27, 362-402.
Colbourne, J.K. & P.D.N. Hebert, (1996) The systematics of North American Daphnia (Crustacea: Anomopoda): a molecular phylogenetic approach. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 351: 349-360.
Colbourne, J.K., P.D.N. Hebert & DJ. Taylor, (1997) Evolutionary origins of phenotypic diversity in Daphnia. Pp 163-188. In: T.J. Givnish & K.J. Sytsma (eds). Molecular evolution and adaptive radiation. Cambridge University press, Cambridge, UK.
Crease, T.J., Omilian, A.R., Costanzo, K.S. & Taylor, D.J. (2012) Transcontinental phylogeography of the Daphnia pulex species complex. PLOS ONE, 7, e46620. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0046620
Dallwitz, M. (1974) Dallwitz, M. (1980); Dallwitz, M. Paine, T. and Zurcher, E. (1993) DEscription Language for Taxonomy (DELTA).
Decksbach, W. K., (1930) Zur Cladoceren fauna von Kaukasus und Nordpersien. Travaux de la station biologique du Caucase du Nord, Nord 2.
Dybowski, B. & M. Grochowski, (1895) Spis systematyczny Wioslarek (Cladocera) Krajowich. Kosmos, Warsaw (Lemberg), 20, 139-165.
Eylmann, E., (1887) Beitrag zur Systematik der europäischen Daphniden. Berichte der Berichte der Naturforschende Gesellschaft zu Freiburg im Breisgau Veröffentlichungen, 2, 61-148.
Gießler, S., E. Mader & K. Schwenk, (1999) Morphological evolution and genetic differentiation in Daphnia species complexes. J. Evol. Biol. 12: 710-723.
Glagolev, S.M. & M. Alonso, (1990) Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) hispanica sp. nov., a new daphnid (Cladocera) from Spain. Hydrobiologia 194: 149-162.
Gurney, R., (1921) Fresh-Water Crustacea collected by Dr. P. A. Buxton in Mesopotamia and Persia. The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 27, 835-843.
Haghparast S. & K. Darvish Bastami, (2011) Daphnia pulex through physical and chemical factors. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal, 19.
Haghparast, S., A. Shabani, B. Shabanpour, & S. A. Hoseini, (2012) Hatching Requirements of Daphnia magna Straus, 1820, and Daphnia pulex Linnaeus, 1758, Diapausing Eggs from Iranian Populations in vitro. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14, 811-820.
Haghparast, S., A. Shabani, B. Shabanpour, S. A. Hoseini & M. H. Pahlavani, (2011) Experimental induction of hatching in ephippial eggs of Daphnia similis. Iranian journal of Biology, 24.
Havel, J.E., (1986) Predator-induced defences: a review. Pp 263-277. In: W.C. Kerfoot & A. Sih, (eds) Predation: direct and indirect impacts of aquatic communities. University Press of New England, Hanover, London.
Hebert, P.D.N., (1977) A revision of the taxonomy of the genus Daphnia (Crustacea: Daphnidae) in southeastern Australia. Aust. J. Zool. 25: 371-398.
Hebert, P.D.N., (1978) Cyclomorphosis in natural populations of Daphnia cephalata King. Freshwat. Biol. 8: 79-90.
Hemsen, J., (1952) Cladoceren und freilebende Copepoden der Kleingewasser und des Kaspisees, in: Ergebnisse der Osterr. Iranexpedition 1949/50. Sitzungsberichte Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung I. 161.
Hobæk, A., Skage, M. & Schwenk, K. (2004). Daphnia galeata x D. longispina hybrids in western Norway. Hydrobiologia, 526, 55–62.
Hudec, I., (1991) Vyskyt a biologia druhov rodu Daphnia, podrod Daphnia (Cladocera: Daphniidae) na Slovensku 3. Cast: D. galeata, D. cucullata. Biologia, 46, 129-138.
Hutchison, G.E., (1967) A treatise on Limnology. Vol 2. Wiley, New York. 1116 pp.
Jafari, N., Nabavi, S. and Akhavan, M., (2011) Ecological investigation of zooplankton abundance in the river Haraz, northeast Iran: impact of environmental variables. Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 63 (3), 785-798, doi: 10.2298/abs1103785j
Johnson, D. S., (1952) The British species of the genus Daphnia (Crustacea, Cladocera). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 122, 435-462.
Korinek, V. (2010-2016) Cladocera collection. Available from: (accessed 2 May 2016)
Kurz, W., (1874) Dodekas neuer Cladoceren nebst einer kurzen Übersicht der Cladoceranfauna Böhmens. Osterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. Sitzungsberichte. 70: 1-88.
Lampert, W. & H.G. Wolf, (1986) Cyclomorphosis in Daphnia cucuUata: morphometric and population genetic analyses. J. Plankton Res. 8: 289-303.
Lehman, N., M.E. Prfender, P.A. Morin, T.J. Crease & M. Lynch, (1995) A hierarchical molecular phylogeny within the genus Daphnia. Mol. Phyl. Evol. 4: 395-407.
Leydig, F., (1860) Naturgeschichte der Daphniden (Crustacea Cladocera). Tubingen. 252 pp.
Lindberg, K., (1942) Cyclopoides nouveaux du continent Indo-Iranien III-IV. Records of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 44, 15-27
Loffler, H., (1961) Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Iranischen Bin- nengewasser II. Regional limnologische Studie mit besonderer Berticksichtigung der Crustaceen fauna. International Review of Hydrobiology, 46, 309-406.
Manca, M. & A.G. Tognota, (1993) Seasonal changes in morphology and size of Daphnia hyalina Leydig in Lake Maggiore. Hydrobiologia 264: 159-167.
Mohammadyari, A., Ghassemzadeh, F., Mirshamsi, O., Aliabadian, M., Vukic, J. & Petrusek A., (2014) Diversity of Daphnia in Caspian and Urmia Lake Basins (Northern Iran): a molecular approach. Abstract book of 10th International Symposium on Cladocera, Lednice, 28 Dec. – 3 Oct. 2014, Czech Republic.
Mort, M.A., (1989) Cyclomorphosis in Daphnia galeala mendotae: variation and stability in phenotypic cycles. Hydrobiologia 171: 159-170.
Müller, O.F., (1776) Zoologicae Danicae prodromus seu animalium Daniae et Norvegiae indigenarum characteres, nomina et synonyma imprimis popularum. Havniae, 264 pp.
Müller, O.F., (1785) Entomostraca seu Insecta testacea quae in aquis Daniae et Norvegiae reperit, descripsit et iconibus illustravit Otho Fridericus Müller. Lipsiae et Havniae, 135 pp.
Petrusek, A., F. Bastiansen, K. Schwenk, (2005) European Daphnia Species (EDS) - Taxonomic and genetic keys. [Build 2006-01-12 beta]. CD-ROM, distributed by the authors. Department of Ecology and Evolution, J.W. Goethe-University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany & Department of Ecology, Charles University, Prague, Czechia.
Petrusek, A., Tollrian, R., Schwenk, K., Haas, A., & Laforsch, C. (2009). A “crown of thorns” is an inducible defense that protects Daphnia against an ancient predator. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(7), 2248-2252.
Pijanowska, J., (1990) Cyclomorphosis in Daphnia: an adaptation to avoid invertebrate predation. Hydrobiologia 198:41-50.
Pijanowska, J., 1992. Anti-predator defence in three Daphnia species. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 77: 153-163.
Rylov, V. M., (1928) Zur Eucopepoden-Fauna von Kaukasus, Transkaukasien und Nord-Persia. Travaux de la Station Biologique de Roscoff, Caucase Nord 6, 2.
Sabkara, J. & M. Makaremi, (2003) Density investigation and plankton distribution in Maku dam lake. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal, 12th year, No. 2.
Salavatian S. M., A. Aliyev & B. S. A. Nezami, (2012) Investigation on Identification, Density and Distribution of Zooplankton in Lar Reservoir. World Journal of Zoology, 7, 40-46.
Sars, CO., (1862) Oversigt af de af ham i Omegnen af Christiana iagttagne Crustacea Cladosera. Forh. Vidensk. Selsk. Christiana 1861: 144-167,250-302.
Sars, G. O., (1864) Inberetningomen I Sommeren 1862-1863 foretagen zoologisk Reise I Christianasog Trondhjems Stifter. Nytt Magazines for Naturvidenskapene, 12, 193-252.
Straus, E.H., (1820) Memoire sur les Daphnia de la classe des Crustaces. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 6, 149-162.
Wesenburg-Lund, C, (1908) Plankton investigations of the Danish Lakes. Copenhagen, Gyldenalske Boghandel.
Wesenburg-Lund, C, (1926) Contributions to the biology and morphology of the genus Daphnia with some remarks on heredity. (K.) Danske Videnskabernes selskab Biol. Skiifter 11: 89-251.
Zaret, T.M., (1980) Predation and freshwater communities. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. 187 pp.