Morphological variations of Alburnus mossulensis (Heckel, 1843) populations in Iran

Document Type : Research articles


1 Isfahan University of Technology

2 Department of Natural Resources (Fisheries Division), Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan


Morphological variation of Alburnus mossulensis (Heckel, 1843) populations in Iran were investigated by collection of 705 specimens from 27 rivers of five basins, including Bushehr, Fars, Karkheh, Karun and tributaries of Tigris (Diyala) basin in Iran in 2010 by a seine net. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin for further investigation after anesthetizing in 1% clove oil solution. Twenty-two morphometric and 11 meristic characters were examined. Morphometric characters in adjusted form and meristic characters in classified form were used for population comparison. Analysis of morphometric and meristic characters by ANOVA showed significant differences (p<0.05) in all basins for all characters except the number of dorsal and anal fin spines. Classification of meristic characters showed most specimens of all basins have eight soft rays in dorsal fin, 12 soft rays in anal fin, 19 soft rays in caudal fin, 15 soft rays in pectoral fin and nine soft rays in pelvic fin. Discriminant function analysis showed that populations from Fars and Karun Basins were different from each other and from other populations, on the other hand, populations from Diyala, Karkheh and Bushehr basins overlapped. This result may indicate that there are similar conditions in Diyala, Karkheh and Bushehr basins, resulting in more similarity amongst the populations of these basins.


  1. Anvarifar, H., 2010. The Influence of Shahid-Rajaei Dam Construction on the Genetic and Morphometric Structure of Capoeta capoeta gracilis (Keyserling, 1861) in Tajan River, Iran. MSc Thesis, Department of Fisheries and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran. (In Persian with English abstract).
  2. Anvarifar, H., Farahmand, H., Nematollahi, M.A., Rahmani, H., Karami, M., Khalili, B., 2010. Impacts of Shahid Rajaii dam on genetic variation and differentiation siah mahi, capoeta capoeta gracilis, in Tajan River using RAPD fingerprinting. Journal of Natural Environment (63)3, 211-223. (In Persian with English abstract).
  3. Anvarifar, H., Khyabani, A., Farahmand, H., Vatandoust, S., Anvarifar, H., Jahageerdar, S., 2011. Detection of morphometric differentiation between isolated up-and downstream populations of Siah Mahi (Capoeta capoeta gracilis) (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in the Tajan River (Iran). Hydrobiologia 673, 41-52.
  4. Bookstein, F.L., 1991. Morphometric tools for landmark data: geometry and biology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  5. Coad, B.W., 2009. Alburnus zagrosensis n. sp., a new species of fish from the Zagros Mountains of Iran (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae). Zoology in the Middle East 48, 63-70.
  6. Elliott, N.G., Haskard, K., Koslow, J.A., 1995. Morphometric analysis of orange roughly (Hoplostethus atianticus) off the continental slope of Southern Australia. Journal of Fish Biology 46, 202-220.
  7. Erguden, D., Turan, C., 2005. Examination of genetic and morphological structure of Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L., 1785) populations in Turkish Coastal waters. Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences 29, 727-733.
  8. Falahatkar, B., Amlashi, A.S., Eagderi, S., Mousavi-Sabet, H., 2015. Review on the Caspian Shemaya, Alburnus chalcoides (Güldenstädt, 1772). International Journal of Aquatic Biology 3(5), 323-330.
  9. Gharaei, A., 2012. Morphometric and meristic studies of snow trout Schizothorax zarudnyi (Nikolskii, 1897) as a threatened endemic fish. World Journal of Fisheries & Marine Sciences 4(4), 426-429.
  10. Ihssen, P.E., Evans, D.O., Christie, W.J., Reckahn, J.A., DesJardine, R.L., 1981. Life history, morphology, and electrophoretic characteristics of five allopatric stocks of lake white fish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the Great Lakes region. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 38(12), 1790-1807.
  11. Kaiser, H.F., 1974. An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika 39, 31–36.
  12. Karakousis, Y., Triantaphyllidis, C., Economidis, P.S., 1991. Morphological variability among seven populations of brown trout, Salmo trutta L., in Greece. Journal of Fish Biology 38, 807–817.
  13. Keivany, Y., Nezamoleslami A., Dorafshan S., 2015. Morphological diversity of Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843) populations in Iran. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 2, 148-154.
  14. Keivany, Y., Nasri, M., Abbasi, K., Abdoli, A., 2016a. Atlas of Inland Water Fishes of Iran. Iran Department of Environment Press.
  15. Keivany, Y., Mousavi, S.M.A., Dorafshan, S, Zamani-Faradonbe, M., 2016b. Morphological variations of Alburnus mossulensis Heckel, 1843 populations in the Tigris tributaries of the Persian Gulf basin in Iran (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 3(3), 190-202.
  16. Keivany, Y., Mousavi, S.M.A., Dorafshan, S., Zamani-Faradonbe, M., 2016c. Morphological variations of Alburnus mossulensis Heckel, 1843 populations in Karun basin. Journal of Applied Ichthyological Research 4(1), 87-104.
  17. Mian, J., Hussain, S.M., Siddiqui, P.J.A., Immink, A., 2014. Haematological, Biochemical and Immunological Changes on Growth Enhancement of grey Mullet Fingerlings (Mugil cephalus L.) On Shrimp Head Protein Hydrolysate and Macroalgae Based Diets. World Journal of Fisheries & Marine Sciences 6(4), 295-304.
  18. Mousavi, S.M.A., 2011. Morphological variation of Alburnus mossulensis (Heckel, 1843) populations in Iran. MSc Thesis, Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. (in Persian with English abstract).
  19. Mousavi-Sabet, H., Khataminejad, S., Vatandoust, S., 2014. Length–weight and length–length relations of the seven endemic Alburnus species (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in Iran. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 44 (2), 157-158.
  20. Mousavi-Sabet, H., Vatandoust, S., Khataminejad, S., Eagderi, S., Abbasi, K., Nasri, M., Jouladeh, A., Vasil’eva, E.D., 2015. Alburnus amirkabiri (Teleostei), a New Species of Shemaya from the Namak Lake Basin, Iran. Journal of Ichthyology 55(1), 40-52.
  21. Naeem, M., Salam, A., 2005. Morphometric study of fresh water bighead carp Aristichthys nobilis from Pakistan in relation to body size. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8(5), 759-762.
  22. Nimalathasan, B., 2009. Determinants of key performance indicators (KPIs) of private sector banks in Sri Lanka: an application of exploratory factor analysis. Fascicle of the Faculty of Economics and Public Administration 9(2), 9–17.
  23. Pinheiro, A., Teixeira, C.M., Rego, A.L., Marques, J.F., Cabral, H.N., 2005. Genetic and morphological variation of Solea lascaris (Risso, 1810) along the Portuguese coast. Fisheries Research 73(1), 67-78.
  24. Poria, M., Fathali, N., Ghanbary, K., Poria, H., 2013. Interrelationship between Morphometric Variables and Body Weight Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843) Evaluated by Path Analysis in Gamasiab River of Kermanshah Province, West of Iran. World Journal of Fisheries & Marine Sciences 5(6), 674-679.
  25. Poulet, N., Berrebi, P., Crivelli, A.J., Lek, S., Argillier, C., 2004. Genetic and morphometric variations in the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.) of a fragmented delta. Arch Hydrobiolgia 159(4), 531-554.
  26. Rezaei, E., Vatandoust, S., Kazemian, M., Anvarifar, H., 2012. Morphological variability of the Aspius aspius taeniatus (Eichwald, 1831) in the southern Caspian Sea basin. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 11 (3), 627–643.
  27. Salini, J.P., Milton, D.A., Rahman, M.J., Hussain, M.G., 2004. Allozime and Morphological variation throughout the geographic range of the tropical shad, hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha). Fisheries Research 66, 53-69.
  28. Samaradivakara, S.P., Hirimuthugoda, N.Y., Gunawardana, R.H.A.N.M., Illeperuma, R.J., Fernandopulle, N.D., De Silva, A.D., Alexandra P.A.B.D., 2015. Morphological variation of four tilapia populations in selected reservoirs in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agriculture Research 24(2), 105-116.
  29. Sedaghat, S., Hosseini, S.A., Fazel, A.A., 2012. Morphometric and Meristic Characteristics Studies of Loach, Paracobitis malapterurus in the Zarrin-Gol River, East of the Elburz Mountains (Northern Iran). American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 12(10), 1282-1287.
  30. Sharma, N.K., Mir, J.I., Pandey, N., Singh, R., 2014. Morphometric and Meristic Characteristics of Birdi Loach, Botia birdi (Chaudhuri, 1909) from a Tributary of Indus Basin, Jammu and Kashmir, India. World Journal of Fisheries & Marine Sciences 6(3), 262-266.
  31. Swain, D.P., Foote, C.J. 1999. Stocks and chameleons: The use of phenotypic variation in stock identification. Fisheries Research 43, 113-128.
  32. Thompson, J.D., 1991. Phenotypic plasticity as a component of evolutionary change. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6, 246–249.
  33. Tudela, S., 1999. Morphological variability in a Mediterranean, genetically homogeneous population of the European Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus. Fisheries Research 42, 229–243.
  34. Turan, C., Oralzturk B.O., Duzgunes E., 2006. Morphometric and meristic variation between stocks of Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the Black, Marmara, Aegean and northeastern Mediterranean Seas. Fisheries Research 79, 139–147.
  35. Tzeng, T.D., 2004. Morphological variation between populations of spotted Mackerel Scomber australasicus of Taiwan. Fisheries Research 68, 45–55.
  36. Veasey, E.A., Schammass, E.A., Vencovsky, R., Martins, P.S., Bandel, G., 2001. Germplasm characterization of Sesbania accessions based on multivariate analyses. Genet Resour Crop Evol 48, 79-90.
  37. Wimberger, P.H., 1992. Plasticity of fish body shape, the effects of diet, development, family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Bot J Linn Soc 45, 197–218.
  38. Zamani-Faradonbe, M., Eagderi, S., Moradi, M., 2015a. Patterns of Body Shape Variation in Capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Relation to Environmental Variables in Sefidrud River Basin, Iran. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences 9(1), 36-42.
  39. Zamani-Faradonbe, M., Eagderi, S., Nasri, M., 2015b. Geometrics morphometric comparison of populations of Waspi Cabdio morar (Hamilton, 1822) in Mashkil and Mokran Basins. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 23(2), 57-67 (In Persian with English abstract).
  40. Zamani-Faradonbe, M., Eagderi, S., Poorbagher, H., Shahbazi Naserabad, S., 2015c. Ecomorphology of Kura Barbel (Barbus cyri, De Filippi, 1865) in Sefidrud River Basin. Journal of Aquatic Ecology 5(1), 33-24 (in Persian with an English abstract).